Part I
Travel Diary of Samuel Hastings Stackhouse, 1811

********* Mr. Gardiner ********** P. Hodgson, LTG of Liverpool who promises that I shall receive the balance of some money in their hands.  Dine with Mr. Bradley.  Purchase a pair of saddlebags & leave my trunk to be sent on by the ship Montgomery.  Intended starting tomorrow morning but at the request of Mr. Snodgrass wait until the day after.

Wednesday, Oct 9.  This day I enter my 32 year.  Would that they had been more profitably spent ***********  They have not **** tells me that I have much evil in my heart and so dimly are the Christian graces reflected through me that to an observer my character must appear very doubtful.  O, Lord, I am unworthy --a sinner indeed- there is truly nothing good in me my such a one hope to find favor in thy sight, that saving grace thou hast already vouchsafed to me.  Thou has opened the eyes of my understanding.  Thou ************** street in order to be ready for the stage at 4 in the morning.  Spent rather an uncomfortable night.

Thursday morning, the 10th Oct.  Started in the Lancaster stage & arrived at Lancaster 62 miles at sunset.  We had a very full stage, 16 at one time, not much conversation.  Put up at Mr. Staymaker's, an excellent house, commodious & well furnished.  Wrote my Mary from this town.  Remained here until next afternoon when we took our seats in the mail stage for Pittsburgh.  Went this evening to Eliz town 18 miles, where we lodged rather uncomfortably.  Started ************** to Middletown, thence to Harrisburgh, a distance of 20 miles, where we breakfasted.  This town is pleasantly situated on the banks of the Susquehannah & is the seat of government of the State of Pennsylvania.  Here we met Mr. & Mrs. White who took seats in the stage on their way to Georgetown.  Cross the river Susquehannah & arrive at Carlisle 20 miles distant.  This is a flourishing village containing a well established ******* & finely situated *********** 150 miles.  Spent the day's journey pleasantly, had most conversation with Mr. & Mrs. White ******* Georgia.  They take their leave of us in the evening intending to start before daylight on the Washington route which intersects at this place.  Our stage companions were not unpleasant.  They consist of a Mr. Marshall, of a Mr. Lent ******* Riley ** of Bedford, a worthy man of great ***ness of disposition, pleasingly modest.  We have also two Prussians who are merchants in the town of Cincinnati, orderly well behaved men.  The preacher does not discover his character until the * days journey.  I happen ****************** Jesus ***** my only refuge.  Without him I am lost.  With him I hope to reach Heaven.  Dear Lord, continue with me, guide me, instruct me, strengthen me by that which is **** in my weakness.  Preserve me from the slippery path of the world, grant me some conformity to thy blessed image.  Form my heart in understanding & in wisdom & in word & doctrine make me a Christian, a disciple of the blessed Jesus.  Dispose of me as seemeth right in thy sight to the power and glory of thy name.  We know not in ***** keeper is our God.

Spent this day in making preparations & writing several letters.  **** one by William from my dear Mary, highly consoling, couched in much tenderness, prudence & firmness, displaying a judicious & pious reflection.  My wife certainly has some superior qualifications but that which is our own are not licensed to pr*****.  The Lord enable me to recompense her love to me in much fullness ******* conversation.  On Monday morning friend Dunning & ****** took leave of Phila***** weakly & hardly able to perform the journey.  Met this morning with my friend Snodgrass who concludes to accompany me by land & to get ready with all speed.  I am now waiting the arrival of my brother William from New York.  Mr. Snodgrass & myself take a walk  to the Scuylkill Bridge, witness a military parade & sham fight.  General Duncan *************  Go this evening ***** my Uncle Amos Stackhouse ** been some time *******  He is a plain excellent man of the Society of Friends with a temper & disposition of the finest mould.  My aunt is a woman of much gentleness & industry & comes within the character of an excellent wife.  She is the mother of 11 children & 10 grandchildren & seems not yet to have passed the meridian of life.  Was conveniently accammodated, everything clean & nice & not inelegant.

************************************* & better than a spirit eloquence.  This Br. S. I have observed is generally too rapid; he is not calm & deliberate but seems rather to give expression to words & sentiments without that knowledge & understanding which should form the standard of prayer & without which there is neither solidity nor perspicuity in the matter.  Not that I would take from ********** all prevailing efficacy of the *********** For the ************** of the heart even where they are rendered without words is sufficient.  Our heavenly parent gives the spirit; it moves upon the heart and asks in faith for a correspondence with the Divine Will, being the instrument of many, if not all the blessings we receive.  Public praying is but a solemn mockery if it is not of the spirit, yet it is also for mutual **********.

Tuesday, 15 Oct. Met Major Denning *********** no alteration ********** witty with a shrewdness of remark made in a peculiar manner which has a wonderful currency in the world.  He invites me to dinner, observes in the presence of Mr. Dunning that Deacon D. J. must come along to say Grace, that S. is too great a bungler.

Dine with the Major.  My friend D. declines going.  Mr. D. very clever, the family generally attentive.  Meet with General Duncan at table, the brother of my friend above.  Soon ******** Uncle Robank.  The world ************ the things that are tempted him --popularity -- fame, became darling, seducing, bewitching darlings who weaned him from his love to God, and so displayed their meritricious charms that they decoyed him to their embraces.  Oh what a root of bitterness did they implant in his soul.  Happiness was now *** as the morning sun.  No divine **************** which hardly his consolation ******* hope his joy since manhood first began to shine upon his countenance was not now to be found though sought with tears.  His seducers became odious, hateful.  He hid himself from society but was yet miserable.  The Lord's countenance was hidden from him.  His Redeemer he could not behold.  One look from him in love would have blessed him above two thousand worlds.  But alas such was not the will of God as permitted to be drawn *************** assured only that he was born of God and that he should not be separated from him in Eternity ************ and oh to God that he did find his name written in the Lambs book of life.  General D. is at present much engulfed in politicks.  He assures me that he is anxious to withdraw from them & promised me that he is in earnest.  His wife is a member of the Babtist Church.  He thinks it was his duty to have made a profession five years ******************  Mr. & Mrs. Molder & Miss Molder are all members of the 2nd Babtist Church over which Mr. Holcomb is to be the future pastor & whom they are received in the faith with much joy.

On Sunday morning **** 6th was up at daybreak in expectation of meeting my beloved wife in the Mail Stage but was disappointed.  Went this morning to the 2nd Babtist Church ******************a sermon abounding in much rich matter ****************** the doctrinal complexion of the preaching.  In the afternoon went to hear D. Staughton was very excellent.  In the evening Mr. Holcomb whose discourse was deep, searching, clear, animated & elegant & in which Christ was manifested from beginning to end; notwithstanding it was pronounced armenian by one of my very esteemed brothers.  After meeting went to Mr. Holdens & spent an hour ******************  Dr. *** says he is high toned.  Mr. S. says something sharp when I was at breakfast the next morning.  After lecture Dr. S. called on Br. Stackhouse to engage in prayer.  This insignificant br. had come in church late & from his distance from Dr. S. had no idea that he *** to be there.  The ** was embarrassing & to refuse was more so in the situation **************.  Learnt the arrival of Mr. Holcomb from Savannah.  Called on him at Mr. Garrets.  Much pleased at the interview.  Called on Dr. Staughton who invited me to stay with him **********.  The amiable Dr. S. like many amiable & great characters seems to prefer his qualificants singly and not united in the **** of his other half.

Friday evening.  Hear Dr. S. lecture on Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress **************** we accordingly enter the lists & have a powerful **** in my pocket which I have not at this occasion to discover.  Our Presbyterian friend seems highly gratified at the conflict, continually giving nods of approbation, even one of the Prussians seems to have some knowledge of his neighbor.  Calvin smiles, a look of ***************** coolness (some thought for me ) through the day, which is the Sabbath, having left Chambersburgh after breakfast in the morning and intending to go only 20 miles over Laurel Hill, a stupendous mountain, as this day's journey.  We walk up the mountain & arrive safe at Campblister at 3 o'clock in the afternoon where we ******************.  Have had excellent fare at a very cheap rate 12 1/2 Ch only for supper, 20 for dinner and the house kept by Mr. Dryden who certainly furnished something more substantial for the stomach than poetry.

On Monday morning set out, crossed a very rough mountain called Sideling Hill.  Crossed the river Juniata where they are erecting a chain bridge & arrived ******************* smart little ***** famous for its mineral springs about an hour after dark having had a very uncomfortable day.  Our fellow traveller, Mr. Ryan invites us to his house where we are treated with much hospitality.  We return to our quarters at the inn & retire to bed.  We have but little rest.  The Merinos, as William calls them are very troublesome ****** us up ******** before we are called.  We proceed on our journey.  Crossed the Alleghany Mountain, road pretty good, a wet disagreeable day. Arrived safe at Somerset, a small county town on the westerly declivity of the Alleghany.  Set out early the next morning (Wednesday) & traveled over the roughest road we have yet experienced.  Got upset but providentially without any injury.  Arrived this evening at Greensburgh, a thriving little place distant 30 miles from Pittsburgh.  Continue our journey in the morning.  Come in sight of the River Monongahela.  Shortly after passed through Braddock ******** where that General with most of this army lost their lives in an unskillful & imprudent attact upon the Indians.  A small fragment of his army made good their retreat under the judicious management of young Washington, who here first displayed those great military talents which shone so qualified him to be the Deliverer of his country.

At 2 o'clock we arrived at Pittsburgh.  Put up at Mr. Spencer's which proves to be an excellent house.  Went to the Emperor of the West to get shaved.  His imperial majesty shaves roughly.  Conclude his title to be misapplied.  Wrote to my Mary to the care of Clay & D.J.  Take a run of the town which is extensive & lively.  The inhabitants look rather sooty from the universal practice of burning coal which is not much used here as in my part of England.  The southern banks of the Mongahela & thence down the Ohio furnish inexhaustible beds of this fuel & of a very superior quality.  The town of Pittsburgh is situated on a small plain surrounded by mountains at the confluence of the Monogahela Alleghany Rivers.  It contains about 5000 inhabitants.  The streets are narrow & not very regular.  There are three marketplaces, the principal one built with considerable taste in an excentric form.  The markets are abundantly supplied with beef, mutton, very fat venison, pork, eggs, butter, cheese, honey, poultry, game & also with a variety of vegetables & fruits in their seasons.  The buildings are mostly inferior, those recently erected are better & generally of brick.  There are 6 or 7 places of worship of every denomination almost but the Babtists.  This town has nothing inviting to an eye of taste except the beautiful & majestic streams that roll along its banks and the wild picturesque of the steep & rugged mountain that rises on the south side from the bed of the Monongahela.  As there are no elegant edifices, no sumptuous mansions, no places of public amusement, none of the enervating & time spending luxuries of fashion, no splendid equipages, none of the trappings of a slippery rank & but few of the gew gaws of extravagance of any kind.  All those things which are at best but deceptive ****** are supplied by industry and zeal in the various avocations of this people.  Everyone, male and female, appears to have some useful employment.  Trade & several branches of the manufactures appear to flourish in a high degree.  The place is already wealthy, I presume beyond any other in the western country, & I would venture to predict from its habits that it will become vastly rich.  My Methodist friend Wrinshall has a well assorted store & receives weekly from 500 to 1000 $ in cash.  Mr. Bakewell to whom I had a letter from my friend Page has a glass manufactory where he makes all kind of fine glassware, cut & plain, equal to any English.

[Maiden voyage of first steamboat to go down the Mississippi River]

On Friday we went on board the steamboat lately built at this place, were treated with much politeness by Mr. & Mrs Roosevelt.  We were invited on board in the afternoon as they intended making a trial of her speed.  We accordingly went & found ourselves unexpectedly at a tea party, 60 to 70 ladies present.  Everything was very agreeable.  The ladies were quite unreserved and very open and communicative.  I received considerable attention, a part of it no doubt proceeded from their not having a right conception of the plurality of my character.  The steamboat first moved up the Monongahela, then down the Ohio & up the Alleghany, all in very fine style.  They are now waiting the flooding of the Ohio in order to get over the falls.  We are desirous of going down in her, but on account of our engagement with our friend Snodgrass who equipped himself at Phila. for a land journey we are unable to go.

Saturday, the 19 Oct.  We are engaged looking out for horses which are rather scarce.  Our Presbyterian friend Semple is very attentive.  Spent this evening with much satisfaction at Mr. Wrenshall's, am invited to a Methodist class meeting in the morning.

Sunday morning.  At 9 o'clock go to the class meeting.  There are about 20 people present, three females among the number.  They are seated round the room.  The class leader, who is generally the best gifted Brother rises, gives out a hymn, sings & prays.  He then turns towards the person nearest him & inquires what has been his state of mind,  whether he has enjoyed the Divine Presence any trials, joys, etc., embracing what he may have experienced since the last meeting.  He then expatiates to them on this experience directing & exhorting to thanksgiving for the Lord's mercies, patience to any trial they may be called to endure, fervency of prayer in darkness, a near walk with God to overcome the world, the Scriptures of truth in any ignorance of God's word, looking unto Jesus in the hour of trouble & temptation.  They all appeared much humbled under a sense of sin & unworthiness, & though the class leader seems to have much of the Spirit, yet he did not discover Jesus as the all & in all of the poor sinner.  I longed to say something.  At length it came my turn.  He observed, "Well, Brother, will thee tell us what the Lord has done for thee."  I commenced by saying, "It has pleased me that Jesus whom we have met here to worship to reveal himself unto me to the joy & comfort of my soul.  When I was wandering in the wilderness of this world, an alien from God under the dominion of an evil & wicked heart the light of truth was communicated to my soul.  I saw that I was a sinner indeed & through divine love was enabled to fly to Jesus for refuge.  Him I found as a hiding place from the storm, a covert from the tempest, a river of water in a dry place, as the shadow of a great rock in a weary land.  I hope that I have continued to experience that he is precious to my soul.  I have no hope without him & every hope in him."  I had some liberty & said considerable, touching on the expressions & feelings contained in some of these experiences.  One said that he had received much consolation by being able to apprehend the figure of the brazen serpent.  This I endeavored to enforce, that so we must continually see Christ as one suspended in the heavens that we may look upon him & live, that this was living by faith upon the Son of God.  Whatever I said I was obliged to apply to myself, which shackled me very much.  The class leader made but little comment on what I said.  The meeting closed with singing & prayer.  I then went to the covenanters meeting a reformed Presbyterian where I heard excellent preaching.  They profess an exact conformity to the Scriptures.  They expound the Psalm previous to singing as they say singing would be real praise to God with understanding & knowledge.  They unhappily introduce an interference in civil matters in religion which I think very exceptionable.  They hold no respect to rulers except they are Christians.  In the afternoon I heard a Presbyterian minister Mr. *** who preaches a very good sermon & is popular, but he had not the marrow of the covenanter who is the reverse, very unpopular.

Return to my lodgings, find our friend Snodgrass arrived.  In the evening all of us take tea with Mr. Wrenshall & go to the Methodist meeting.  A young man preaches differently from most of his order & I took opportunity to tell Mr. Wrenshall that I thought he saw what were the doctrines of the Gospel but that he could not venture out.  He was also rigid in preserving order & discountenancing things that were unseemly.  As soon as he gave out his text an old member of the church who finds it impossible to keep silence cries out "Amen."  This Brother on a former occasion was chided for the expression of his feelings during sermon.  He accordingly kept silence for some time.  At length something struck his feelings too forcibly.  He could restrain himself no longer.  He cries out "Amen" at a venture.  Return home.

Monday the 21.  The water has risen several feet.  The steamboat went down last night.  Purchased a sorrel mare, bridle & saddle for 75$, also a Bay pony for William for 50$ with bridle & saddle.  Leave our other trunk with Mr. Wrenshall to send down the river.  Put in it all our extra clothes, carrying with us only what is barely necessary.

Tuesday morning, the 22 Oct.  Take our departure from Pittsburgh.  Cross the Monongahela & arrive at the town of Washington, State of Penna, dist. 30 miles, at 7 o'clock in the evening.  This is a lively little town about half the size of Pittsburgh.  Meet here Mr. Clay of Kentucky on his way to Congress. Start at sunrise in the morning.  Mr. Snodgrass's horse lame.  William's pony foundered.  Make poor progress.  Late in the evening arrive Wheeling, 32 miles.  This town is on the river Ohio in the state of Virginia & has a considerable trade, suffered much by sickness the present season.  Well  accommodated at Mr. Spriggs who knows all the great men in the country.

Thursday morning take our departure after breakfast.  Detained in crossing the river, a waggoner & a female brawl, somewhat insolent.  Opposite to Wheeling is Zanes Island in the Ohio which makes a double ferry.  On the far side the flatt is carried over by a rope having elevation enough on one side to give it a corresponding rise on the other.  Two small ropes are attached to the sides of the flatt which meet & are conjoined to the large rope by rollers.  As soon as all are on board a rope is pulled which sets her in motions, when she flies to the other side with great speed.  We move on slowly.  Horses unpromising.  By sunset arrive at St. Clairville only 11 miles from Wheeling.  This is a small town in the state of Ohio, have entered the state after crossing the river at Zanes Island.  We put up here at a Mr. Groves who is very attentive & desirous of making us comfortable.  We conclude to rest our horses the next day.

Friday, the 25 Oct.  At 12 o'clock get under way from St. Clairville & proceed on to within 1 mile of Morristown where we conclude to put up at an honest old Dutchman's by the name of Holtz.  Here we are entertained by the company of several well behaved females.  One of them discovers a very considerable mind & a knowledge of divine things that strikes me with some astonishment.  Yet she is not sensible of ever having received the word of truth with power.  Friend Snodgrass is unusually gay this evening.

Saturday, the 26th.  At daylight take our departure hoping to do better than we had the two preceding days, having come only 11 & [9?] miles those days.  My mare which hitherto has held out well appears lame at starting & on going a little distance perceive that she is foundered.  Stop a little at Morristown where a waggoner bleeds her in the mouth.  Proceed on.  Meet an itinerant tinman who highly recommends bleeding in the feet & accordingly performs the operation.  We get on 10 miles where we breakfast at a Mr. Sparings(?) who has two daughters, one of them bold and forward with much to say, the other modest & pretty behaved.  Our host is very friendly, provides a concoction of sassfrass root & salt which he administers to my filley to great advantage.  We wish to get on 14 miles further.  My horse improves under the several remedies prescribed.  We gain that distance by twilight at a small village called "Little Washington" or Baumstrown.  Here we are well accommodated.  Miss Rosa prepares us an excellent supper.  We have come this day 24 miles.

Sunday, the 27th Oct.  We continue our journey 1. because there is no place of worship & 2. we feel it necessary to get on & 3. our time would perhaps be even better employed in journeying than tarrying.  At 7 o'clock in the evening we arrive at Zanesville, the seat of government for the State of Ohio --36 miles -- a flourishing town situated on the banks of the river Muskingum.

Monday morning, the 28 Oct.  Take an early departure from Zanesville, cross the Muskingum, pass through the village of Springfield on the opposite banks of the river.  The part of the State of Ohio to Zanesville which we have passed through is very broken & rugged & some of the land very inferior.  We now come to a level champaigne country, the soil very rich, giving to the husbandsmen an exuberant production, yielding 70 to a 100 bushels corn & 30 to 45 bushels of wheat to the acre. At 7 in the evening we arrive at the town of New Lancaster distant 38 miles.  We are here well accommodated at Mr. Greens, find our horses much improved.

Set our early on Tuesday morning, the 29.  Ford the river Sciota[?] & arrive at Chilicothe 32 miles journey before sunset.  This is a considerable town & was formerly the seat government for the State.  It appears as large as Pittsburgh, the streets wide & regular & the buildings tolerable good.  The site of the town on the high banks of the Sciota is handsome & airy.  We put up here at Buchanan Hotel, a house of more style than accommodation.  Conclude to take the Lebanon Road to Cincinatti.

Wednesday, the 30.  Make an early start & pass through a fertile but thinly inhabited country.  Ride 16 miles to breakfast & continue on 23 miles to a Mr. Harris where we tarry for the night, accommodations on this road indifferent.

Thursday morning the 31 Oct.  Proceed early on our journey & make no stop until we get to the Little Miama River, 23 miles, where we refresh very comfortablu at a Mr. Rug's.  Near his house there is a Babtist meeting house ***.  From some of the book, about conclude some of the family are members.  We proceed on six miles further which brings us to Lebanon at about 3 o'clock in the afternoon.  This is a handsome little village, well situated & distant 30 miles from Cincinnati surrounded by the best lands in the state.  About 3 miles from this place there is a large settlement of Shakers, who are very flourishing in their temporals.

After breakfast in the morning (Friday 1, Nov.) we leave Lebanon.  Mr. Snodgrass & William conclude to go to Hamilton & some other places on the big Miama, to visit some friends of the former & to rest their horses.  The preceeding evening William exchanges his pony for a chesnut mare, gives 17$ with the ex. which promises to be a good one.  After going 5 miles in company I turn off to the left toward Cincinnati, the road lonely & thinly settled.  Pass through a little place called Reading & arrive at Cincinnati about 5 in the evening & put up at the Columbia Inn kept by Mrs. Willis & her son-in-law Mr. Armstrong.  Make inquiry after Cousin Esek. Smith & ascertain that he resides in town.  Called upon him & much pleased at the interview.  His wife appears to be a fine woman.  Spend the evening & promise to breakfast with them the next morning.

Saturday, the 2nd Nov.  Breakfast with Cousin Smith & afterwards take a view of the town.  In the year 1791 the first tree was felled on the site of this town by the Army under the command of Gen'l St. Clair which was afterwards defeated by the Indians near the Great Miama.  Gen'l Wayne the next year made his encampment at this place, which considerably prepared it for improvement.  The town now contains about 4000 inhabitants, the buildings are generally good & mostly of brick.  The streets run parallel with the river Ohio, crossing again at right angles & are generally of a good width.  About 500 feet from the banks fo the river the town receives a sudden elevation by the ascent of a steep hill, on the top of which there is a fine plain for building which is filling up with excellent improvements & forms a very handsome situation.  The part o the town below the hill is well improved & is the seat of business which appears thriving.  The courthouse is a neat handsome building with a very tastful cupola.  The market house is a good one & is well supplied with every necessary article of flesh, fowl, bread & vegetable kind.  Wild turkies sell at times for 12 1/2c **, ducks 18 3/4 ppr., fowls 12 1/2 pp. & butter 8 **12 1/2c, beef 2 1/2-3 per lb, venison the same.  They are at present erecting a new marketplace on a larger scale in the same style as the New York market.  There is at present one bank in operation called the Miama Exporting Compy.  Another one with a capital of 500,000 drs. will soon go into operation.  Upon the whole this is a handsome, well situated & flourishing town & promises a very rapid increase.  Between the great & lesser Miama Rivers it embraces the richest soil in the western country.  The principal settlers are from the state of New Jersey.  On the opposite side of the river is situated the little town of ___port in the State of Kentucky.  Licking River which runs through that state empties into the Ohio at the same place.  About 30-40 miles down the river is the settlement of New Switzerland, recently settled by the hardy, industrious, virtuous & valiant mountaineers of the ill-fated Switzerland in Europe.  They are engaged in the culture of the vine with much success.  The last year their settlement made 2400 [qts?] which they sold at 1.59 pg. the quantity will be yearly increasing.  The quality is about the same as french claret.  They have made some also from the Madiera grapes. This is an establishment of much importance to this country & the acquisition of the settlers is still more so.  Driven by oppression from their native country they have sought an asylum under this fair western sky.  Born Republicans they are under laws congenial to their nature.  Here they may develop their vines in peace & obtain the sure product of their labour.  Here with parental fondness may they mark the growth of their sons & their daughters without the dread anxiety of their being wrested from them by the ruthless hand of tyranny & force.  And here may they practically sit under their own vines & their fig trees and none to make them afraid.

The Columbia Inn where we put up at is one of the best houses of entertainment in the eastern country.  The building is of brick, 3 stories high & very large, about 40 persons sit down at table each day. Spent Saturday, the 2nd of Nov. in viewing the town & in writing up my journal, etc.

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